Monitoring and Inspection

TSP24/48 Tunnel Seismic Prospector

( Overview

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The TSP24/48 Tunnel Seismic Prospector combines advanced geological surveying technology with modern electronic technology into a high-technology product. The system is primarily used for probing the immediate state and position of geological structures during tunnel excavation; it also conducts evaluations of the rock to guarantee the safe production and accurate workload estimation of the tunnel.

As early as the 90's, Jilin University Engineering Technology Research Facility (previously known as the Changchun College of Geology Engineering Technology Research Facility) and Ministry of Railway cooperated to develop an early stage tunnel construction advance forecast technology "Tunnel vertical layer prediction" and undertook responsibility to develop instruments and sensors using this methodology, as well as their successful application and practical production. This technology, in combination with the other surveying equipment of this facility, is collectively known as an integrated engineering surveying system. In 1995, this system earned the Second Place Technological Results Award from the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources; because of the positive societal and economic impacts from the use of the technology both within and outside China, in 1996 it was again honored with the Third Place National Technology Advancement Award. All intellectual property rights of the product are owned by the company. It is being successfully used in Japan, Russia, America, Singapore and Canada; nearly a thousand units have been sold throughout the world, with widespread customer approval. As a part of the integrated engineering surveying system, the Tunnel Geological Advance Forecast System has been sold from 1996 to today, and has been developed from the original CH12 to five product lines: TST12, TST24, TSP12, TSP24/48. Today, the newest version is the TSP24/48 (Tunnel Seismic Prospector) tunnel geology seismic probing system.

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( Main Function

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TSP24/48 tunnel geology seismic probing system is composed of the main unit, sensors, seismic emitter, and data processing software and customer service system.

The main unit is the core component of the system. As an ideal combination of computer technology and modern electronic technology, it features 24/48 independent high precision acquisition channels (24 bit A/D converters) and can dock 8 3-axis accelerometers or speed-based geophones (typical observation stations use 1-2). The main unit has an ultra-small design, is light and portable (the entire set can be carried by one man) and has a built-in lithium battery with over 10 hours of operating time, fully combining data acquisition and processing and greatly simplifying the workload.

TSP24/48 system has 24/48 data acquisition channels. Traditionally, 24/48 locations need to be prepared for seismic emitter (such as explosion), and the measurements need to be made for every location. With this new design, only one seismic is needed, and 24/48 channels of data can be measured simultaneously; thus greatly simplifies the process. Furthermore, this technology allows continuous construction during geological surveying and the explosive seismic emitter can be replaced by safer sources such as hammering or electrical spark.

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( Main Features

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(Pictures

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(Technical Specifications

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Technical Specifications:
Number of channels: 24/48
Bandwidth range: low frequency channels (24): 0.5 Hz - 10 kHz
high frequency channels (6): 50 Hz - 50 kHz
Preamplifier gain: 16 - 48 dB
Input resistance: 20 kOhm
A/D converter: 24 bit
Sampling rate: low frequency channels (24): 0.025 - 5 ms
high frequency channels (6): 0.00625 - 0.4 ms
Dynamic range: 144dB
Cross-channel interference: 100dB
ynchronization methods: wired pulse, GPS timing,
GFSK radio (433 MHz)
Monitor: 9" (16:9),
1024×600
Processor: Intel (R) Atom (TM) N270 1.6 GHz
RAM: 1G
Hard drive: 160G
Size: 320×180×90mm
Weight: 4.5Kg
Operating Temperature: -20℃~+60℃
Power consumption: 112V / 1.2 A
Built-in lithium battery capacity: 7.4V/17.6Ah
(10h operating time)
 
 

(Standard Software

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TSP24/48 Tunnel Seismic Prospector software consists of two parts: data acquisition system and data processing and prediction system:
TSP24/48 Data acquisition software:

The TSP24/28 data acquisition software, based on a Windows OS, applies bandwidth filtering, background noise filtering and ACG automatic gain control onto the data after each sampling, and display the graph in real time.

TSP24/48 Data processing software:

The TSP24/48 data processing software interprets data into key geological structures and the corresponding parameters (longitudinal and shear wave velocity, Poisson's ratio, dynamic elastic modulus). The program features many useful modules such as: the arrival time of wave front, energy balancing, energy compensation, filtering, separation of P and S waves, velocity scanning, shift imaging, result interpretation etc. All intermediate data are saved during processing.


Functional modules of the post-processing software

Arrival time of wave front:
From the arrival time of three channels, the delay in the system is recalibrated,
as well as an initial value of velocity is estimated, which is used in later calculations.



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Energy Balancing:

Due to the uncertainty in the energy of explosive, the depth of the explosion and coupling effects, the exact initial condition for the seismic source is unknown. Two independent methods are available in this module to calibrate the seismic source.


Dissipation Compensation:

Due to the complexity in the geological environment in the construction site, the seismic wave decays over a distance and the energy decays differently at different frequencies. This module provides three decay models in order to improve accuracy in distance estimation.


Bandwidth Filter:

In the case of surveying during continuous construction work, the signal to noise ratio is sharply reduced by the noises from construction. This module provides a polygon bandwidth to filter out the construction noise and improve the SNR.。



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Wave Separation:

The raw data contains the reflection waves from every direction. However, for tunnel construction applications, we are only interested in the reflection waves from the front vertical face. Thus the module separates these reflection waves from the raw data.


P wave - S wave Separation:

This module estimates the propagation speeds of the P wave and the S wave. The speeds and the ratio of the speeds can be used to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of geological structure.


Speed Scan:

The speed scan module provides the spatial distribution of wave speed on frontal vertical plane, in order to evaluation the hardness of the rock structure ahead.



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Depth Map:

Using the reflection waves from frontal vertical plane, a depth map maybe generated using Kirchhoff method. Thus the spatial location of the geological layer interface can be determined.


Overall Results:

The overall outputs of the software include the spatial distributions of P-S wave speeds, ratio of the P-S wave speeds, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and depth map of the frontal vertical plane.


3D Result Display:

The above results can be viewed in AutoCAD as 3D models, and it's very convenient for visualization and exporting into standard figures.


 

 
 

(Possible Extensions

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TSP24Tunnel geological prediction system of other optional configuration list:
Index Name Model Quantity Comment
1 24 channel extension EX-24 1
2 Ground three -component data acquisition chain ( 8 / chain ) 1
TSP48Tunnel geological prediction system of other optional configuration list:
Index Name Model Quantity Comment
1 Ground three -component data acquisition chain ( 8 / chain ) 2
 
 
TSP24 System Recommended Configuration:
Index Name Model Quantity Comment
1 Main STATION (24 channels) TSP24 1
2 Main connection hub 1
3 Trigger connection 1
4 Power adapter AC-TSP 1
5 Cranking explosive box 1
6 3 channel velocity meter, push rod and cord 2
7 3 channel accelerometer, push rod and cord 2
8 Accelerometer rod 10
9 Instrument case BY-2 1
10 Data processing software 1
TSP48 System Recommended Configuration:
Index Name Model Quantity Comment
1 Main STATION (48 channels) TSP48 1
2 Main connection hub 1
3 Trigger connection 1
4 Power adapter AC-TSP 1
5 Cranking explosive box 1
6 3 channel velocity meter, push rod and cord 2
7 3 channel accelerometer, push rod and cord 2
8 Accelerometer rod 10
9 Instrument case BY-2 1
10 Data processing software 1